Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Following Gender Reassignment Surgery: A Review of Presentation, Management, and Outcomes in the Transgender Patient Population


  • Shruti Zaveri
  • Alice Yao
  • Hank Schmidt

Received Date: 29.01.2020 Accepted Date: 30.05.2020 Eur J Breast Health 2020;16(3):162-166

Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a rare peripheral T-cell lymphoma with approximately 650-700 reported cases worldwide. The incidence, however, is increasing as more practitioners become aware of the diagnosis, and recent studies show that early diagnosis and treatment is critical to improve prognosis. There have been four cases of BIA-ALCL in total reported in the transgender population in the literature. These reported cases were reviewed in detail to determine presentation and management of BIA-ALCL in transgender patients compared to the larger population of BIA-ALCL patients. This review highlights BIA-ALCL in transgender women, a population that is often excluded from breast screening and follow-up. Transgender women may not routinely go through the same post-operative follow-up protocols as patients with breast implants for breast cancer reconstruction and can thus be at risk for delayed recognition and diagnosis. BIA-ALCL is a rare complication of breast implantation, and it is important to counsel all patients undergoing implant placement, including transgender women, on its risk.

Keywords: BIA-ALCL, implant, lymphoma, transgender